SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL VARIABILITY OF STREAMFLOW AND SOLID YIELDS IN SEMIARID AREAS: CASE OF THE OUED MINA BASIN (NORTHWEST ALGERIA)/SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL VARIABILITY OF STREAMFLOW AND SOLID YIELDS IN SEMIARID AREAS: CASE OF THE OUED MINA BASIN (NORTHWEST AL

Mohamed ACHITE, Mohamed MEDDI

Résumé


Abstract :
Mediterranean and semi - arid zones are characterized by an aggressive climate and by
irregular and violent rainfall events. Water-induced erosion in river basins and river
sedimentation constitute a complex phenomenon, which poses many problems for the
engineers responsible for development projects. This phenomenon constitutes a major
constraint limiting agricultural development in Algeria. We propose a statistical approach to
quantify the solid yield at different gauging sites. The data were collected at five sites in the
Oued Mina basin (upstream of the Sidi Me hamed Ben Aouda dam). The observation period
covered 22 years, from 1973 to 1995. The results showed a high inter-annual and annual
variability of the liquid discharge and solid yields; the coefficient of variation exceeded 60%
in all cases. In addition to this temporal variation, we noted a variability of the solid yields
and liquid discharge among the different sites. Analysis of the monthly solid yields shows that
the autumn season contributes a large proportion of the annual solid yield (more than 40%)
for the different basins. Tranport of solids in the Oued Mina and its effluents is highly
variable in space and time. This variability is due primarily to the pluviometric regime, the
vegetation cover and the lithology. In general, the seasonal variations of the solid
contributions follow those of the liquid flow. The maximum values of the solid discharges, for
all basins, are observed at the beginning of autumn and the end of spring. Generally, the
monthly minimal solid yields are recorded in summer. This season is characterized by low
rainfall and consequently a weak surface flow. However, the minimal solid yields do not
necessarily correspond to the month characterized by the lowest liquid discharge. The autumn
contributes 31% to the annual liquid flow and 51% to the annual solid yields of the Oued
Mina area at Wadi El Abtal station; corresponding values are (26 %, 33 %), (33%, 53 %),
(29%, 46%) and (36%, 48 %) at the stations of Sidi A.E.K Djillali, Ain Hamara, Kef
Mehboula and Takhmaret, respectively. The autumn solid transport remains highest,
significantly exceeding the other seasons. This variability is explained by the variation in
vegetation cover (bare ground) during the year and the aggressive nature of the autumn rains.
Because of these two factors, the first autumn flood transports considerable quantities of
sediments after a long dry season characterized by high temperatures and destruction of the
soil aggregates by these temperatures. The energy produced by the first rains and the low
degree of vegetative cover rate in this season also contribute to this increase in autumn. The
Oued Haddad basin presents a high specific degradation compared to the other basins
(Ds=212 t/km2/an). This impoverishment of the soil is very visible at this site. It is due to
factors favouring erosion : steep topography and discontinuous vegetative cover, which
protects the ground poorly. The Oued That basin, which has a topography favouring surface
flow and abundant rains, has a specific degradation lower than the Oued Haddad basin
(Ds=191 t/km2/an). The basins of Oued El Abd present a specific degradation about 117
t/km2/an at Ain El Hamara station and about 65 t/km2/an at Takhmaret station. The Oued
Mina at Sidi M'hamed Ben Aouda dam gives a specific degradation about 396 t/km2/an.
The runoff coefficient explains a large part of the variance of the solid yield (more than 60%).
This coefficient depends intrinsically on lithology, geology, vegetative cover, topography and
the hydrological and pluviometric regimes. By the introduction of this parameter, we sought
to explain solid transport by the explanatory variables of this phenomenon. The result was
very encouraging, considering the percentage of the explained variance (more than 60%).
Following this analysis, mathematical models are proposed, connecting the solid yield to the
runoff coefficient. The determinations coefficients are equal to : 0.79; 0.61; 0.64; 0.78; 0.65
for the stations of oued Al Abtal, Sidi Abdelkader Djillali, Ain Hamara, Kef Mehboula and
Takhmaret, respectively.


Résumé :
Les zones méditerranéennes et semi - arides sont caractérisées par des régimes
pluviométriques irréguliers dans le temps et dans l'espace. L'érosion hydrique des bassins
versants et la sédimentation des cours d'eau constituent des phénomènes complexes très
répandus qui posent de nombreux problèmes aux ingénieurs chargés des projets de mise en
valeur. En raison de son ampleur, cette érosion constitue une contrainte majeure au
développement de l'agriculture et à la promotion des activités rurales en Algérie. Une
approche statistique de quantification des apports solides est développée dans cette étude. Les
données utilisées sont recueillies au niveau de cinq sous-bassins du bassin versant de l'Oued
Mina drainés par les stations hydrométriques, en amont du barrage de Sidi M'hamed Ben
Aouda. La période d'observation s'étale sur 22 ans (1973 à 1995). Il existe une grande
variabilité inter-annuelle et intrannuelle des apports liquides et solides. En plus de cette
variation temporelle, il a été remarqué une variabilité spatiale des apports solides et liquides.
Les valeurs maximales du transport solide sont enregistrées au début d'automne et à la fin du
printemps. Le transport solide d'automne reste le plus élevé, dépassant significativement les
autres saisons. Cette variabilité trouve son explication dans la pauvreté du couvert végétal
durant cette saison et la nature agressive des pluies d'automne. La charge spécifique du bassin
versant de l'oued Haddad est de l'ordre de 212 t/km2/an. Le bassin versant de l'oued Taht a
une charge spécifique inférieure à celle du bassin de l'oued Haddad (Ds=191 t/km2/an). Les
bassins versants de l'oued el Abd présentent des charges spécifiques de l'ordre de 117 t/km2/an
à Ain El Hamara et de 65 t/km2/an à Takhmaret. La charge spécifique de l'oued Mina au
barrage de Sidi M'hamed Ben Aouda est de 160 t/km2/an.
Des modèles mathématiques liant l'apport solide au coefficient d'écoulement ont été proposés
pour les cinq sous-bassins drainés par les stations hydrométriques.

Mots-clés


Liquid discharge; solid yield; erosion; spatial and temporal variability; statistical model; Oued Mina; Algeria/Apport liquide ; apport solide ; érosion ; variabilité spatio-temporelle ; modèle statistique ; Oued Mina ; Algérie

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